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Bibliogrophy                                                                    lntroduction
        Ambrose, Stephen E. Undaunted Courage. New York: Simon &                          The United States Congress approved the $15 million purchase of the
        Schuster,1996.                                                                 Louisiana  Territory  from  France,  in  1803.  This  vast  expanse  bordered
        Bakeless, John (ed.). Journals of Lewis and Clark. New York: Pen-              the 2,963 miles long Missouri River between its mouth near St. Louis,
        guin Group, 1964.                                                              Missouri and its source near Three Forks, Montana.
        Clarke, Charles G. Men of Lewis and Clark Expedition. Glendale,                   President Thomas Jefferson asked United States Army Captains, thirty
        CA: Arthur H. Clark Co.,1970.                                                  year old Meriwether Lewis and thirty-four year old William Clark, to form
        DeVoto, Bernard (ed.). The Journals of Lewis and Clark. Boston:                an expedition and explore the Missouri River and find a direct water route
        Houghton Mifflin Co., 1953.                                                    to the Pacific Ocean. He also directed the two explorers to meet and make
        Gass, Patrick. Journal of Patrick Gass. Minneapolis: Ross & Haines             friends with the different Indian Tribes along the way, especially the Teton
        Inc.,1958.                                                                     Sioux, but not to take any unnecessary risks. The captains were also asked
        Hall, Eleanor J. The Lewis and Clark Expedition. San Diego, CA:                to keep journals showing information about the various Indian Tribes,
        Lucent Books, 1996.                                                            latitude and longitude of remarkable points, types of soil and minerals,
                                                                                       different kinds of wildlife, and details of the journey.
        Jones, Landon Y. The Essential Lewis and Clark. New York: Ecco
        Press, 2000.                                                                      The exploring party consisted of twenty-six members of the United
        Lewis, Meriwether. The Lewis and Clark Expedition. 1814 edition,               States  Army:  two  captains,  three  sergeants,  and  twenty-one  privates.
                                                                                       Other crew members were three hunters and interpreters, one laborer,
        unabridged. Philadelphia and New York: J.B. Lippincott co., 1961.              thirteen French boatmen, and Captain Clark’s servant, a total of forty-
        MacGregor, Carol Lynn (ed.). Journal of Patrick Gass. Missoula,                four men. Hunters led two horses along the shore and used them to hunt
        MT: Mountain Press Publishing Co., 1997.                                       antelope, deer, elk, and buffalo to supplement the food supply. Captain
        Moulton, Gary E. (ed.). Journal of Joseph Whitehouse. Lincoln, NE:             Lewis took along his Newfoundland dog, named Seaman.
        University of Nebraska press, 1997.                                               Captain  Lewis  supervised  the  construction  of  a  fifty-five-foot  long,
        Osgood, Ernest Staples (ed.). Field Notes of Captain William Clark,            eight-foot wide, flat-bottom, shallow-draft keelboat at Pittsburgh. It had
        1803-1805. New Haven & London: Yale University press, 1964.                    an elevated cabin in the stern (rear) and a cabin in the bow. The boat was
        Quaife, Milo M. (ed.). The Journals of Captain Meriwether Lewis                equipped with a thirty-two foot mast, square sail, and twenty-two oars.
        and Sergeant John Ordway. Madison: State Historical Society of                 A swivel gun (cannon) was mounted on its bow. The travelers also used
        Wisconsin, 1916.                                                               two flat-bottom rowboats, one with six oars and one with seven oars, the
        Robinson, Doane. Encyclopedia of South Dakota. Sioux Falls, SD:                seventh oar used as a rudder. Each long rowboat, called a perogue, had
        Will A. Beach Publishing Co.,1925.                                             a mast and sail, and was armed with a small swivel gun (blunderbuss)
        Schmidt, Thomas. The Lewis and Clark Trail.  Washington, D.C.:                 mounted in the bow.
        National Geographic Society 1998.                                                 Below the keelboat’s deck was a thirty-one-foot long hold for storage
        Skarsten, M.O. George Drouillard. Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark                of food and supplies. Some of the trip’s foodstuff were 1 barrel and 23
        Co., 1964.                                                                     bags meal; 4 barrels and 11 bags hulled corn; 15 barrels and 2 bags flour;
        Thwaites, Reuben Gold (ed.). Original Journals of the Lewis and                4 barrels and 7 bags hard biscuits; 7 barrels salt; 50 kegs salt pork; 1 keg
                                                                                       hog lard; 2 bags sugar; 1 bag each coffee, beans, and peas. Some of the
        Clark Expedition. 8 vols. New York Dodd, Mead & Co., 1904. New
        York: Antiquarian Press, Reprint 1959.

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